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What is Periodontal disease (gum disease)?
Gum diseases are contaminations of the structures around the teeth, which incorporate the gums, periodontal tendon and alveolar bone. In the most punctual phase of gum disease — gingivitis — the contamination influences the gums. In increasingly extreme types of the illness, the majority of the tissues are included.
On the off chance that your hands bled when you washed them, you would be concerned. However, numerous individuals believe it’s typical if their gums bled when they brush or floss.
Swollen and bleeding gums are early signs of infection of bacteria in your gums. If nothing is done, the infection can spread and destroy the structures on your jawbone that support your teeth. Your teeth can eventually become so loose that they need to be removed.
“Perio” means around and teeth are referred to as “dontal”. Periodontal diseases are infections of teeth structures, including gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The infection affects the gums at the earliest stage of the periodontal disease — gingivitis. All tissues are involved in more severe forms of the disease.
Researchers are investigating possible links between gum disease and:
What causes periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque bacteria, the adhesive substance that forms on your teeth a few hours after you have brushed. Interestingly, it is your body’s response to the bacterial infection that causes most of the problems. In an effort to eliminate the bacteria, your immune system cells release substances that cause inflammation and destruction of gums, periodontal ligament or alveolar bone.
When oral hygiene slips or dental visits become irregular, the plaque builds on the teeth and spreads below the gum line. Another problem is that if the plaque builds on the teeth, it is calcified or hardened over time and turns into calculus (usually called tartar).
Risks and prevention
While the main cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque build-up, several other factors, including other diseases, medications and oral habits, can also contribute. These are factors that can increase or aggravate your risk of gum disease once the infection has started.
Genetics— Researchers believe that up to 30% of the population is genetically susceptible to periodontal disease. However, having a genetic susceptibility does not mean that gum disease is unavoidable. Even people who are very susceptible to periodontal disease due to their genetic make – up can prevent or control the disease with good oral care.
Tobacco and smoking— Tobacco increases the risk of periodontal disease and the longer one smokes the greater the risk. If there is a periodontal disease, smoking makes it harder. Smoking is the main cause of treatment – resistant periodontal disease. Smokers tend to gather more tartar on their teeth, develop deeper periodontal bags once they have gum disease and lose more bone as the disease progresses.
Misaligned or crowded teeth, braces or bridges — Anything that makes it harder to brush or floss your teeth is likely to increase the formation of plaques and tartars above and below the gum line, which increases your chance of developing gum disease.
Stress — Stress can aggravate and make it more difficult to treat periodontal disease. Stress weakens the immune system of your body, making it more difficult for your body to combat infection, including periodontal disease.
Diseases— While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, some diseases increase their susceptibility to periodontal diseases. People with diabetes, for example, are more likely to develop parodontitis than people without diabetes and it is likely to be more serious
Poor nutrition — For good overall health, including a functioning immune system and healthy gums and mouth, nutrition is important.
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